CGIWrap - Tips and Tricks

Ok, here's a few examples on how you can use mod_rewrite to rewrite your 
CGIwrap URL's in a way that is totally transparent to the end user.
Example #1 - Basic Rewriting of CGIwrap URL's
In this example all VirtualHosts are in the format username.domain.com
All user's CGI directory's are ~/cgi/
In httpd.conf :-
# I control the Scope of these Rewrite with a VirtualHost Directive
# I dont want these rewrites to apply to the Main VHost, only to the customers
# VHosts (which are also rewritten)
# set up scriptaliases for the man cgi-bin
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /path/to/main/cgi-bin/
# Init out rewrite engine
RewriteEngine On
RewriteMap lowercase int:tolower
# keep the main CGI bin intact
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/cgi-bin/
# make the requested vhost lowercase in case some doofus uses wierd caps
RewriteCond ${lowercase:%{HTTP_HOST}} ^[a-z-][-0-9]+\.domain\.com$
RewriteRule ^(.+) ${lowercase:%{HTTP_HOST}}$1 [C]
# do the magic
RewriteRule ^([a-z-][-0-9]+)\.domain\.com/cgi/(.*) /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/$1/$2 [PT]
RewriteRule ^([a-z-][-0-9]+)\.domain\.com/cgi-d/(.*) /cgi-bin/cgiwrapd/$1/$2 [PT] 
RewriteRule ^([a-z-][-0-9]+)\.domain\.com/nph-cgi/(.*) /cgi-bin/nph-cgiwrap/$1/$2 [PT]
RewriteRule ^([a-z-][-0-9]+)\.domain\.com/nph-cgi-d/(.*) /cgi-bin/nph-cgiwrapd/$1/$2 [PT]
Example #2 - Rewriting with a RewriteMap
RewriteMap's are alot faster than standard regexp based rewrite because
mod_rewrite caches each map lookup, until the mtime of the mapfile changes,
thus removing the needs for interpratation of the Rules each time they are
This is a complete example, as used on our production webserver
# Again use a VirtualHost directive to control the scope
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /s101/current/cgi-bin/
RewriteEngine On
RewriteMap lowercase int:tolower
# map file which contains key/value information for all our customer
# subdomains (username.server101.com) and any domains they host with us
# map file is of format
# username.server101.com /s101/home/user
# domain.com /s101/home/user
# www.domain.com /s101/home/user
RewriteMap vhost dbm:/etc/apache/hostmap
# map file which contains key/value information for path info for customers
# cgi 
# format:
# username.server101.com /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/
# ...
RewriteMap cgi   dbm:/etc/apache/cgimap
# keep our CGI bin intact
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/cgi-bin/
# Other Aliases we have that we want to stay intact
RweriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/icons/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/cgi/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/stats/images/
# we dont want the machine's name to be rewritten or even attempt to be
# rewritten as a failed map lookup will cause a pass through of the main vhost
RewriteCond ${lowercase:%{HTTP_HOST}} !^launch.server101.com$ [NC]
# heres where the magic starts
RewriteCond ${lowercase:%{HTTP_HOST}} ^(.+)$
RewriteCond ${vhost:%1} ^(/.*)$
RewriteRule ^/(.*) %1/$1
# Ok with the handling of the user vhosts/domains out of the way we can get on
# to the CGI stuff
# all our users personal cgi's are ~/cgi/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI}  ^/cgi/
# keep the global cgi-bin intact still
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/cgi-bin/
# and our other aliases
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/icons/
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/stats/images/
# here we go again...
RewriteCond ${lowercase:%{HTTP_HOST}} ^(.+)$
RewriteCond ${cgi:%1} ^(/.*)$
RewriteCond ^/cgi/(.*)$ %1/$1 [PT]
and thats it. We dont allow access to any of the *cgiwrapd's as they give out a
little more info than we want our users to have access to...
comments/corrections roady@linux-solutions.org

Actually, if you use Apache 1.1 (recently released), you can use their
built-in handlers like:
AddHandler cgi-wrapper .cgi
Action cgi-wrapper /virtual-path-to-wrapper/username
Of course, this requires all cgi's to end in '.cgi' but there is no need
to force the cgis to remain in one directory (as long as you compile the
wrapper to believe cgi's are in the user's root html directory).
I have my server configured to disallow all CGIs, so users are forced to
use the wrapper...works better than I had ever expected.  They can do
anything with their web sites - and none of them realize the wrapper
is in use.

For netscape server in obj.conf:
NameTrans fn="pfx2dir" from="/cgi" dir="path_to_cgiwrap" name="cgi"
NameTrans fn="pfx2dir" from="/cgid" dir="path_to_cgiwrapd" name="cgi"

cgiwrapd and nph-cgiwrapd provide information about the installation of
your web-server that you might not want to make generally available.
Using the  directive under Apache 1.1 (or greater) it
is possible to restrict who is allowed to use these two debugging
versions of cgiwrap.
For example:
<Location /cgi-bin/cgiwrapd>
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from <your ip number here>
<Location /cgi-bin/nph-cgiwrapd>
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from >your ip number here>
Depending on what value you place for allow from, you can control how
widely these debugging versions
are available.

Look at the Rewrite rules.  You will need to activate mod_rewrite
and recompile (see the Apache documentation and Configuration file:
you will need to uncomment the follwing line and recompile.
Module rewrite_module      mod_rewrite.o
For an example of the runtime configuration, in the srm.conf you could
RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule  ^/~([^/]+)/cgi-bin/(.*)    /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/$1/$2 [PT] 
RewriteRule  ^/~([^/]+)/cgi-bin-d/(.*)  /cgi-bin/cgiwrapd/$1/$2 [PT] 
RewriteRule  ^/~([^/]+)/nph-bin-d/(.*)  /cgi-bin/nph-cgiwrapd/$1/$2 [PT] 
RewriteRule  ^/~([^/]+)/nph-bin/(.*)    /cgi-bin/nph-cgiwrap/$1/$2 [PT] 
Which translates  /~user/cgi-bin/program to
 /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/user/program. Also (in this example) 
 /~user/cgi-bin-d/program is translated to
 /cgi-bin/cgiwrapd/user/program, to provide debugging
support.  And so on... 
The setup of cgi-wrap will determine where the scripts actually reside.
(and I would actually put the script in a directory NOT in the
usual public_html tree, because then it is possible for an anonymous user
to read the cgi scripts).
I have not implemented this to support virtual domains separately, but
it should be possible.

An alternative Action based execution tip Mr Yowler:
Just a one-time contribution to your "Tips and Tricks" notes...
The tip descibed by Shane DeRidder works nicely, except that he left out one important detail:  whatever path you set up, as the "Action" for "cgi-wrapper", must be defined in a "ScriptAlias" directive, so that Apache knows to run the cgiwrap executable, 
rather than treat it as static content.  Here is a sample from my own setup; a VirtualHost on a webserver that lives in a chrooted environment:

  DocumentRoot /
  ServerName www.somedomain.com
  ErrorLog /path/to/logs/www.somedomain.com-error_log
  CustomLog /path/to/logs/www.somedomain.com-access_log
  ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /serverwide/script/path/
    UserDir public_html
   AllowOverride AuthConfig Limit
   Options Indexes Includes ExecCGI
   Action cgi-wrapper .cgi

This configuration allows users within the www.somedomain.com site, run .cgi scripts, from wherever they want, within their home directories.  It's is relatively transparent, as Shane DeRidder said, execpt for two things:
1) Any call for a script, that results in an error within CGIwrap (such as a call for a script that does not exist), results in an error, from the CGIwrap executable.  That error clearly labels itself as coming from CGIwrap, identifying to the user, that 
CGIwrappers are in place.
2) Any attempt to password-protect access to the scripts, using the .htaccess mechanism, will fail, since the CGIwrapper is outside of the users' writable file system tree.  Ordinarily, the user's would simply .htaccess-control the directory containing th
e script that they wrote.  With CGIwrap controlling script execution, however, Apache does not get an opportunity to check the .htaccess rules, for the script (it can only check rules for the CGIwrap executable, itself, and there aren't any, since it is o
utside of the area that the users can modify), and therefore, any script that the user intended to be password-protected or otherwise access-restricted, isn't.
I suspect that a careful application of suEXEC would resolve the latter issue, though the cost of doing so, would be the loss of some of the cooler resource-limiting functions of CGIwrap.  As for the former issue, well...  It would be possible to change t
he CGIwrap source code, to display errors in whatever format suits the webserver administrator, but is seems as though it would be a lot more effort than it's worth.  In my environment, I merely want to keep CGIwrappers transparent to the users, to avoid 
breaking scripts that would otherwise work - I'm not actually trying to keep the wrappers a secret...  :)  In fact, I would actually like them to take advantage of the debugging information that cgiwrapd offers them...  :)
The symptom of failing to use ScriptAlias, on my system, was reflected in the Apache www.somedomain.com-error_log, as a "File does not exist: /serverwide/script/path/~someuser/scriptname.cgi".
Anyhow, that's my little contribution.  I am not on the mailing list (that's what I need - MORE email...  ), and I just had the one thing about the ScriptAlias requirement, to add to the "Tips and Tricks" - otherwise I would have simply posted it to
 the mailing list.  I spent nearly a full day, tracking that one down... Don't I feel the idiot, now...  :)